Patient Centered Learning: Application in medical schools in Mexico

Jorge Valdez jorge.valdez@itesm.mx
Silvia Olivares solivares@itesm.mx
Mildred López mildredlopez@itesm.mx

Abstract

Education in the medical context has transformed through years considering four phases: science-based learning, problem-based learning, competence-based learning and perspective-based learning. Perspective based learning provides multiple lens to transform health care systems with a single purpose: the patient.
Patient Centered Learning (PCL) refers to a model that focuses on understanding patients as persons from different perspectives: human, biomedical and managerial; in order integrally assist them and entrepreneur innovations. The objective of this study was to explore the application of each perspective at medical schools in Mexico.
The method was exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional. A survey was applied to 85 faculty members and deans from the Mexican Association of Schools and Faculties of Medicine (AMFEM) to assess the implementation of PCL using a Likert scale from 1 (Total disagreement) to 5 (Total agreement). The media calculated by perspective was: human (3.76), biomedical (3.72), managerial (3.49), and entrepreneurship (3.33).
Results indicate an emphasis on the human and biomedical perspectives. Medical schools are oriented primarily to understand patient context and their heath requirements. A lower focus was found on the management and entrepreneurship perspectives related to quality and safety processes, costs, and innovation for improvement.
The presented model integrates the four historical medical education phases to provide transformative education. Perspective-based learning not only considers individuality, structure of meanings and context of the patient, but also includes clinical phases, assistance processes, protocols, costs, and improvement opportunities for the health care system.
Learning should foster experiences where the student comprehends the importance of involving the patient on their care considering the highest safety and quality standards at the lowest possible cost. It is also relevant to train them to propose innovations to get ahead of the huge epidemiological transitions on health care delivery.
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